Towards a method for understanding the meanings of the Holy Qur’an by analysing its verses according to the language of the Arabs and their methods of speaking, as Arabs understood them at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an.
(Note: In brackets are sub-matters or meanings derived from the general meanings of the verse in the light of linguistic analysis, and red colour is used to distinguish it from the meaning in the light of linguistic analysis)
Surat Al-Nisaa 58
۞إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَٰنَٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمۡتُم بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحۡكُمُواْ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦٓۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرٗا ٥٨
The meaning in the light of linguistic analysis:
Allah commands you to deliver what has been entrusted with you of deposits or anything to their owners and to keep the covenant you give to people, (this meaning indicates that the speech in this verse is addressed to the general community of believers and that every one of them must deliver the deposit that he or she has been entrusted with to its owner, whether the depositor is a believer or a non-believer.
This “trust” has many corroborated evidences in life which believers must abide by, and one of these corroborated evidence is the “fulfilment of the covenant” that Allah took upon scholars, to show their knowledge to people during the time of discord and confusion between righthood and falsehood, and to say the word of truth before an unjust leader, and to defend people against injustice, and to stand up to the enemies of Muslims if they invaded their land, or occupied part of their land, or controlled their wealth.
Another corroborated evidence of “trust” is fulfilling the covenant that Allah took upon the wealthy to have a share in their wealth for the poor and needy, and also, one of the corroborated evidence of “trust” is fulfilling the covenant that Allah took upon the guardians of orphans, to fulfil what they’ve been entrusted with to the orphans by giving them control over their money and giving them their full rights when they reach the age of maturity).
and he commands you to judge fairly among people (the meaning indicates that this command is general, and includes rulers, judges, and the general community of believers when they make judgment in any matter).
To affirms the obligation to abide by what Allah has commanded you, is that Allah praises fair judiciary, which he commanded and recommended you to fulfil, and Allah in his presence hears every word you utter, and knows the truth of every action that you do, in such he observes everything from all sides and knows every part of it.